High-Speed, Energy-Efficient SSD Storage Solutions
Solid State Drive(SSD) is the next-generation storage device that has overcome the shortcomings of rotating media.
Formal rotating media has distinct disadvantage as storage devices due to their mechanical parts, such as motor and arm. These HDD mechanical parts cause performance and reliability to drop because the drive takes precious time to start up the motor and find data on the rotating platter. SSDs provide the following benefits over rotating media.
|High Performance based
on electrical operation
|Low Power Consumption based
on electrical power management
|High Reliability based on
no moving parts
|Low latency||Long battery time||High data integrity
(2M hours MTBF for Enterprise SSD)
|Fast Booting||Reduce cooling price||Storing safely data on mobile environment|
|Multi-Tasking||Better TCO (Total Cost of Ownership)||Multi-Tasking|
|Quick processing||Long lifetime|
The most important parts in this emerging product line is the NAND Flash and the controller which manages the input and output of data. Other major components are DRAM, which helps buffering during data input and output, and the firmware that drives an SSD. Not only vertically integrated, Samsung is also able to apply extensive know-how designing billions of NAND Flash, and DRAM components as well designing countless controllers and firmware.
- No. 1 M/S for NAND flash since 2003.
- Excellent infrastructure for higher quality performance.
- Long experience of qualifying memory with major OEMs.
- Industry-approved Samsung SSD technology - Samsung SSDs has been adopted by the highest number of OEMs.
- Provides a total in-house solution - NAND Flash, SSD Controller, Firmware, DRAM.
Samsung Thoroughly Understands the Nature of NAND
Overall SSD performance and reliability depend greatly on NAND
- Core competences in managing complexity of NAND.
- Complexity of NAND architectures grows with each change in design - rule technology (lithography) - Block size,ECC, cell technology, interface.
- Samsung expertise in NAND development allows us to produce extremely robust, highly advanced controllers.
SSD with NAND Flash – Component Overview
SSD vs. HDD - Side-by-Side Comparison
|2.5" SATA 6.0Gbps SSD||2.5" SATA 6.0Gbps HDD|
|Mechanism type||Solid NAND Flash-based||Magnetic Rotating Platters|
|Performance||Read : 520MB/s, Write : 400MB/s||Read: 59MB/s, Write: 60MB/s|
Some key features in Samsung flash modules include:
|Samsung SM843T||Samsung SV843|
|General Features||Form Factor||2.5Inch, 1.8Inch||2.5Inch|
|Host Interface||SATA Gen 3.0-6Gb/s|
|Physical Dimensions||2.5Inch: 100 x 70 x 7mm
1.8Inch: 80 x 54 x 5mm
|2.5Inch: 100 x 70 x 7mm|
|Weight (up to)||56g||62g|
|Uncorrectable Bit Error Rate (UBER)||1 in 1017|
|Encryption||Class 0 (AES-256)|
|Power Consumption (Active/Idle)||4.0/1.1 W||2.6/1.0 W|
|Sustained Performance(up to)||Read Latency (99.9% QoS) *||170 µs|
|Write Latency (99.9% QoS) *||< 3 ms(< 500 µs) ♣|
|4K Random Reads **||89,000 IOPS|
|4K Random Writes**||14,000 IOPS(35,000 IOPS) ♣|
|64K Sequential Reads**||530 MB/s|
|64K Sequential Writes**||360 MB/s||430 MB/s|
|Endurance(up to)||4K Random WPD||1.8 WPD ***
(5.4 WPD) ♣
|3.6 WPD ***
(10.5 WPD) ♣
|64K Sequential WPD||11 WPD ***||22 WPD ***|
* Latency measured with FIO (4K Random, QD=8)
** Performance measured using IOmeter 2006 with Queue Depth=32
*** WPD = Drive Writes Per Day for 5 Years
♣ When over provisioning usable drive capacity to 100/200/400/800GB
Benefits of using Samsung SSDs include:
- Greater reliability due to no moving parts from the “solid-state” nature of the drives
- Equal (and gradually increasing) storage capacities offered (as compared to conventional HDDs) due to advancing semiconductor technologies
- Less power consumption, both in active and idle modes, making SSDs ideal for portable, battery-powered devices
- Reduced costs for cooling due to use of controllers with built-in power management capabilities
- Small sizes and lighter weights
- Increasingly faster read and write operations compared to HDDs, ideal for devices running multi-tasking applications.
- Variety of available interfaces for connecting to various types of host devices
- Available in both standard and extended temperature variants
- Greater durability due to very high shock and vibration tolerances
- Greater system reliability due to very high MTBFs
SATA to PCIe
Next-generation NVMe has evolved to leverage the PCI Express® (PCIe®) interface to unleash the true power of NAND flash memory. This evolution was necessary because of SATA limitations in transferring data. Originally, one of the key reasons for the use of the SATA interface in solid state drives (SSDs) was the end user's desire to replace existing drives with a new SSDs. The user did not have to replace the PC software or hardware in order to use SATA based SSDs. However, SATA is limited by a data transfer barrier. The SSD architecture is made up of dozens of numbers of NAND flash memory. Currently, a single NAND flash memory provides a 400 MBb/sps transfer rate. Typical client SSD applications use 8 channels, which provide a bus from which data is transferred and received between the controller and the NAND flash memory. When the 8 channels in typical applications are multiplied by the 400 MB/s transfer rate spanning multiple NAND Flash memories, the result is a 3.2 GB/s data transfer speed. This transfer rate is out of range for SATA to support, which has 600MB/s of maximum bandwidth, therefore Samsung decided to use NVMe to leverage PCIe, which delivers higher bandwidth and shorter latency in SSDs, enabling systems to process the large amounts of data in today's applications.
Designed for improving the performance, efficiency and TCO of data centers and enterprises, Samsung NVMe is an NVM Express specification that defines an optimized register interface, command set and feature set for PCI Express (PCIe®)-based Solid-State Drives (SSDs). The NVMe SSD protocol features low power consumption, scalability and standards-readiness. It offers enterprises faster responses with efficient register access and high availability through hot-swappable capability. Data centers benefit from NVMe SSD suitable multi-thread applications and low power combined with better performance.
Bandwidth and latency improvements over SATA
- Step up to better performance with higher bandwidth and seamless data operation with improved latency
- Step up to better performance and seamless data operation
- Step up to higher bandwidth and improved latency
PCIe improves bandwidth and latency for customers who use SSDs that are based on it.
When it comes to basic performance, NVMe, which is optimized for PCIe SSD, outpaces SATA with 6x higher sequential read performance and 10x higher random performance. Maximum PCIe bBandwidth is increased from 600 MBps to 4,000 MBps versus SATA, gaining a 700% performance advantage. And, NVMe SSD outperforms SATA on JetStress, with higher Transactions Processing Service Element (TPSE) at twice the SATA rate, and lower read (0.1x) and write (0.04x) latency. In TPC-C performance, NVMe SSD outpaces SATA with 1.7x higher transactions per second (TPS).
Latency is improved by more than 3x (from 10 µs to 3 µs) versus SATA. Compared to AHCI, which experiences some delays, NVMe SSD can operate data seamlessly, with more than a 2x reduction in latency with multiple I/O queue pairs, which can be up to 64K I/O queue pairs supported by NVMe specification, and 64K commands per Q. It means that , almost unlimited commands can be queued in NVMe SSD. Meanwhile, AHCI contains only 1 command queue, with 32 commands per Q. In un-cacheable register accesses (of 2K cycles each), NVMe SSD operates with 2 per command, compared to AHCI, which operates with 6 per non-queued command and 9 per queued command. Plus, NVMe SSD outperforms SATA on JetStress, with lower read (0.1x) and write (0.04x) latency. In TPC-C performance, NVMe SSD has 0.57x lower average latency than SATA.
Benefits by user type
- Improve TCO while gaining speed and availability in the enterprise and better, more efficient performance in the data center
- Leverage speed and availability in the enterprise; better, more efficient performance in the data center, and improved TCO for both
- Leverage unique benefits for the enterprise and data center while improving TCO
NVMe SSD offers unique benefits for the enterprise and the data center. Enterprises gain faster response times through efficient register access, high capacity and high availability through front-side, hot-swappable 2.5-in. drives. Data centers benefit from lower power requirements of less than 6W, small form factors that save space, and the convenience and usability of front-side, hot-swappable 2.5-in. drives. NVME SSD is suitable for data centers' multi-threaded applications and database applications. Plus NVME SSD is easily adopted by data centers because it provides benefits in terms of TCO which is resulting from high performance/power efficiency.
- Enterprise : High IOPS / High Capacity / Hot Swappable (2.5")
- Datacenter : Low Power (<6W) / Small FF (M.2) / Hot Swappable (2.5")
- Faster response by efficient register access
- Hot-swappable → High Availability
- Suitable Multi-threads applications
- Low power with better performance
NVMe SSD lowers TCO for both enterprises and data centers by reducing the number of required drives. For example, a transaction processing workload that would need 180 hard drives to deliver the required level of performance would only need one, single NVMe SSD for the same performance. This translates into TCO gains that not only include savings on the initial purchase, but also the associated power costs and overhead expense for the space to house the additional drives.
Lower energy consumption
- Reduce energy consumption for lower
- Lower data center energy costs and consumption
- Decrease power costs and consumption in the data center
NVMe SSD provides low energy consumption to help data centers and enterprises operate more efficiently and reduce expenses. Power-related costs typically represent 31% of total data center costs, with the memory and storage portion of the power (including cooling) consuming 32% of the total data center power. NVMe SSD requires lower power (less than 6W active power) with energy efficiency (IOPS/Watt) that is 2.5x as efficient as SATA.
Wide range of drivers and support from a world leader
- Leverage a wide selection of available drivers and Samsung worldwide support
- Benefit from a range of available NVMe drivers, along with world-class support and component integration
Samsung NVMe PCIe SSD has numerous NVMe drivers, so enterprises and data centers can readily apply it with minimal effort. Qualified Samsung NVMe SSD device drivers have hot plug capability for major operating systems (including Windows Server®, Red Hat®, SUSE® and VMWare®). NVMe SSD is supported for as bootable devices with Option ROM and BIOS.
As a global electronics leader, Samsung has worldwide locations that provide full engineering on-site support. Plus, Samsung integrates all the necessary components including controllers, software and NANDs for NVMe in-house. This full-scope integration helps you better optimize performance and get immediate troubleshooting, plus, you gain more flexibility to create products with new-generation NANDs.